Matryoshka and its types
One of the main centers for the production and painting dolls is the city of Semenov. Thick, sometimes impenetrable forests of this region Zavolzhsky gave shelter to the Old Believers, persecuted by Patriarch Nikon, archers in times of Peter I, the serfs who fled from the tyranny of landlord. In these parts of ancient traditions of ornament are well known and used in the decoration of applied products. It was here that the famous Khokhloma painting was born, in the ornamental figures which have motives that go back to the culture of ancient.
Neighborhood with Khokhloma largely determines the originality painting Semyonovsky dolls. Toy manufacturing lathes in Semenov doing since time immemorial. Made buckets, apples, pears and other toys. Their brightly painted with a brush of the grass, "Belous," part of the red and green stripes and covered with a light on top of paint. Do painted dolls began from the time when the son of a turner-Toy Averyan Dorofeevich Vagina Merinova from the village, located 8 km from the Semenov, brought from Nizhny Novgorod Sergiev - Posad bolvashku wooden doll, painted light green plant color, depicting a man painted beard and mustache. By analogy with Easter eggs doll decided to split. So a wooden toy prototype of future Semyonovsky dolls. The first dolls painted magenta, top covered with glue instead of varnish, making the painting in general, appear dark. Especially interesting were the masters of turning dolls vagina: bald man with a beard and mustache, and a burly man in a hat and coat. The origins of painting Semyonovsky doll has also been associated with hereditary masters Toy Mayorov (rural Merinova). Once the head of the family Arsentiy Fedorovich brought Nizhny Novgorod Fair neraskrashennuyu doll bolvashku, who painted his eldest daughter love. Quill pen on the doll she made and painted a picture of her brush with aniline dyes, are located in the center of a bright red flower that resembles a daisy, a doll's head is crowned with traditional Russian hat, headdress. Gradually formed the type of painting, which in contrast to Sergiev Posad matryoshka more decorative painting. In his paintings come from the Semenov master traditions of "herbal" ornament ancient. Master Semenovtsi left more unpainted wood, painted doll aniline dyes, then varnished. Initially scheduled thin brush stroke face outline, eyes, lips, blush suggest. Then draw a handkerchief on his head doll, painted skirt, apron, arm. The basis of the composition in painting Semyonovsky dolls, is an apron, which depicts a bouquet of beautiful flowers. In the manner of execution of the bunch and view ancient painting techniques of the masters.
Early Semenov dolls more in line with the spirit of ancient paintings and line drawings were graphically and easier. Over time, the pattern of the bouquet as it was filled with the juices of herbs, it becomes more dense, colorful and picturesque. Currently in the painting masters use three colors - red, blue and yellow, varying color combinations handkerchief sundress and apron. Mainly in the coloring solution Semyonovsky doll is the main color in the bouquet, which sets the tone for the color formation. Bouquet traditionally located on the apron asymmetrically shifted somewhat to the right. Each painting Semyonovsky dolls unique and original. An expert, describing the next doll, introduced in painting something new. At the same time matryoshka by makers Zavolzhsky edge bears the imprint of an ancient, polished by centuries of popular culture, originally understood and developed by modern masters. Semenov turners created shape dolls, which in contrast to Sergiev Posad matryoshka is of great harmony, a relatively thin "up", which abruptly into a thickened "down". Famous Semenovskaya matryoshka dolls different from other centers of its BENCH, put it up to 15 - 18 colorful puppets. That was machined in Semenov biggest 72-bedded matryoshka, diameter of 0.5 meters and a height of 1 meter.
Almost simultaneously with the Volga merinovskoy has another matryoshka - in a village Polkhovsky Maidan or Polkhov Maidan, as it was called in prostonarechii.
Its form Polkhovsky matryoshka markedly different from its Sergievsky Semenov and sisters. In addition, surprises her extraordinary variety of multi-head, pointed elongated vertical figures with small, hard-to-cut head of primitive single figures - the columns and plump-like fungi, pupae. Painting Polkhovsky dolls based on a combination crimson - red, green and black ink on a pre-formed loop. "Flowers with fire" - the most common and beloved Polkhovsky Maidan painting is closer and "pestrenie" - decoration with individual strokes, "poking" and points.
Masters Polkhovsky Maidan as merinovskie Semenov and neighbors painted doll aniline dyes to pre-primed surface. Dyes divorced alcoholic solution. Painting a Sergievsky dolls made without preliminary drawing in gouache and watercolor and occasionally in tempera, and the intensity of the color is achieved by painting.
Vyatka and residents of the surrounding villages have long been engaged in the manufacture of toys. In the village of Meadow paint doll began in the 30's. But a special identity Vyatka painted wooden doll gets in the 60 years that doll was not only paint the aniline dyes, but inlay strips. Inlay strips art of wood products based on carpentry, mainly cartons and boxes, known in these parts for a long time. Used for inlay rye straw, which are grown at special sites and carefully cut by hand with a sickle. One piece of straw for decorative effect in a solution of baking soda boil until golden brown, the other is white. Then the straw is cut, smooth, dies knock detail desired pattern. Stick the straw on wet nitrocellulose lacquer. Painted with aniline dyes and inlaid straw doll cover oil varnish. Vyatka matryoshka most northern of all the Russian dolls. It depicts a blue-eyed girl with a soft-Severyanka shy smile. Doll face of this fascinating and attracts you, so they are nice and friendly.
Currently going through a kind of Russian doll renaissance related, apparently, to the huge interest in the world to Russia, which began in her changes in the economic and cultural life. The revival of economic life has enabled the smooth existence of various small private workshops on making and painting Russian wooden dolls. Especially many of these workshops appeared in Moscow and its suburbs, where there is a vast market for these products. The greatest interest was present matryoshka, not made in a certain style, and the author, artist-made individual, professional or amateur. Modern artists matreshechniki primarily appealed to the traditions of the first Russian nesting dolls painted, created by professional artists worked and experienced Master Toy. There are different variants of the Russian peasant girl, dressed in national costumes, in the guise ugalyvayutsya which features the first Russian matryoshka S.V.Malyutina.
Fantasy art gallery there are no boundaries. Traditional type of Sergiev Posad dolls holding an object in his hand, now filled with numerous options of dolls - girls, women, sometimes even older, with baskets full of fruit, samovars and basket. Becoming more common dolls, aprons for depicting scenes from Russian folk tales. Artists who have sufficient technical skill, reproduce the scenes in the art of lacquer miniature painting decorative Palekh or realistic Fedoskino. Becomes more pronounced tendency to use in the decoration of modern dolls decorative motifs characteristic of the traditional centers of Russian folk culture.
Separate master from Semenov used traditional techniques of painting dolls Khokhloma paintings are increasingly found the dolls. painted by "Gzhel", "Zhostovo", "Palekh". We can say that the art of modern dolls like concentrates the wealth of artistic traditions of Russian folk painting. Author's favorite character doll is a Russian woman. At first glance it may seem that this traditional way is difficult to add anything. But the modern painter extracts a surprising freshness, surrendering the game of imagination. A popular image of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, the monuments of ancient architecture of Vladimir, Suzdal, Novgorod and other cities. There are dolls, reproducing the picturesque landscapes of Russia. Often used famous paintings of Russian landscape painters: AK Savrasov. VD Polenov. IN Shishkin. VM Vasnetsov. Along with the scenery and do not neglect the master plot images. To paint the dolls artists choose landscapes and subjects related to national originality of Russia. Even in landscape compositions felt the desire to convey particular emotional tendencies of the Russian people. Especially evident in the paintings of dolls with an episode of contemporary artists, such as Konstantin Vasiliev, with its mysterious ways, symbolizes the great Russia.
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