History of Nesting Dolls
In the nineties of XIX century to the Moscow toy workshop "Children's Education" A. Mamontov brought from Japan a figure of good-natured bald old sage Fukuruma. It was a multiple nested one inside the other figures. Turner Zvezdochkin Basil, who was then working in the studio, turned from wood similar figures, which are nested one inside the other, and the artist Sergei Malyutin painted them under girls and boys. In the first doll was displayed in folksy town girl costume: sundress, apron, shawl with a cock. Toy consisted of eight figures. Image of girls alternated with boy image, differing from each other. The latter showed a swaddled baby.
The name "Matrona" was then widespread. Hence the name - "dolls".
Today, dolls are called only turned and painted wooden toys, gifts, which consist of several be nested. Toys, not to invest in one another - just "chiselled toy."
In the early 1900's. workshop "Children's education" was closed, but the production of dolls was last in Sergiev Posad, in 70 kilometers north of Moscow, in the training and demonstration workshop. The first dolls were sold expensive, but still attract buyers and in great demand. Manufacturing dolls quickly spread Sergiev Posad, appeared workshops Ivanov, Epiphany. Moved here and Basil Zvezdochkin. Sergiev Posad was around a lot of forests, and in him - skilled woodworker. Manufacturing dolls has become so widespread that production orders started coming even from Paris, they were sold in Germany, the famous Leipzig Fair. At the beginning of XX century there was a massive export of dolls abroad. Painting dolls became colorful and diverse. Portrayed girls in sundresses, in shawls, with baskets, bundles, bouquets of flowers. There are dolls depicting shepherds with a pipe, and bearded old men with a big stick, the groom and the bride with a mustache in her wedding dress. Fantasy artists do not limit yourself to nothing. Matryoshka compose himself on different principles to meet the main purpose - surprises. Thus, within the doll "Bride and Groom" placed relatives. Dolls, reflecting these themes were associated with specific dates. In addition to the family theme dolls were designed for a certain level of knowledge, an education. So, for the 100th anniversary of the birth of Nikolai Gogol were manufactured dolls depicting the characters of his works: characters comedy "The Inspector General" (Khlestakov, mayor, judge, postmaster, etc.). In 1912, the centenary of the Battle of Borodino, were made dolls "Kutuzov" and "Napoleon." Within these dolls figurines placed less on which were depicted associates, members of their staffs, members of military councils. Many dolls were dedicated to rites and folklore. Always attracted matreshechnikov theme of fairy tales. Illustrated "turnip", "goldfish", "Ivan Tsarevich," "The Firebird" and other Dolls enriched not only paintings, but also become more complex figures of invested. Thus, in the beginning of the century in Sergiev Posad already made dolls, numbering up to 24 inserts, and in 1913 Nicholas Turner Bulychev broke a record, 48-seat carved doll. In the same year in Sergiev Posad has organized a handicraft industry gang of toys, which suggests that demand increased and brought considerable income.
Matryoshka spread, were constructed far away from Sergiev Posad - in the Semenov district of Nizhny Novgorod province. In some ways, it was similar, but different in many ways. If in Sergiev Posad matryoshka seen squat and dense, the Semenov master sharpened its more slender and elongated, portrayed perky female beauties in colorful shawl.
By the way, "Roly-Poly" is derived from the dolls. The first tumbler of wood paper pulp was invented in 1958 at the Research Institute of Toys in Sergiev Posad. Toy was able to make a sound and was made using a new technology, that is, by hot pressing. By technology - master Ivan Moshkin. Inside lay the iron load figures, which did not allow the figure to fall and force her to take a vertical position.
Talking about the doll can not mention the Toy Museum in Sergiev Posad. It is located seven minutes walk from the station, in a beautiful old two-story building. Here come the kids and adults from all over the country to see the modern and antique toys. Along with many other exhibits here are collections of dolls. Among them is the first matryoshka, painted by famous painter S.V.Malyutinym. Here you can see the various schools of painting: Sergiev Posad, Semyonov, Polch-Maidanskii and others.
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